Items Tagged: Ribofunk

By Roivoire for Interpretatio

Waist-deep in the bioethical imaginary, if it can walk and talk, I am completely comfortable with addressing someone as an equal. It really doesn’t matter if this person has high heel implants, sensory tentacles and no eyes or nose, or a furry pelt. The genetically-engineered animal-human DNA-spliced characters in Paul Di Filippo’s Ribofunk are not seen as beings worthy of agency by their human co-characters in the context of their own universe. In the privileged world of the reader, the complexity and potential of these people is visible. Their behavior and capability mark them as autonomous, with a wide variety of intelligence and personality that create a heterogeneous and unpredictable group that mirror the same elements in humanity. These are beings that deserve the rights of humanity, which answers the tacit question of the rogue splice liberation effort plot-fragment. But what the act of answering this question does is ask another: what does the process of deeming splices worthy of enfranchisement demand of the reader? This becomes evident by the last chapter, when the “Grey Goo Boo Boo” evolves into the world-devouring “mass of rogue silicrobes known as the Urblastema,” or the Urb for short (279). By creating a group so easy to empathize with in the form of the splices, Di Filippo sets in motion the process of accepting the microscopic collection of hive-mind-components of the Urb as an entity that demands and deserves these same qualities. This is a far more complicated challenge to surmount for a newcomer to Di Filippo’s world, but the stories in this volume finally succeed in validating the sentience of both groups.

Di Filippo goes to great length to sculpt multiple models of splices that represent paradigmatically different extremes of this caste-like, subjugated class of beings. They are a caste because they are defined by their genetic origin, and so cannot change how they fit in their society. They are Ribofunk-world’s Untouchables: all splices are subservient in one way or another to humans, until the role of Krazy Kat is introduced. He is the first splice that has agency and uses his non-human abilities to inflict violence upon oppressing humans. In a different way, violence is also imbedded into the dog-like “Little Worker,” whose loyalty and affection to her master propels her to “do anything to make Mister Michael happy” (31). For the supposed good of her master, she indirectly kills off Mister Michael’s wife and his sex-servant splice, all for the aim of being together with him, alone. Other protagonists are an anthropomorphized mouse and rabbit. The choice of these animals cannot be an accident (poor bunny can’t be free!), it is in fact pure pathos, compounded by the humanity of their actions and desires. These characters are unique to each other but legibly compounds of their genetic sources. Since humans cannot be defined strictly by intelligence or personality, they are grouped together and deemed worthy of a specific place in a hierarchical structure of organisms by unique qualities of awareness or consciousness. This is what is referred to as sentience, and it is given privilege by those that inhabit this exclusive philosophical space.

In both instances of splices and the Urb, the Uncanny Valley plays a key role in how humans can metabolize the affront of conversing with one deemed “other.” This conversation might mean that said other can have just as much a right to exist and proliferate as said human. Humans in the Ribofunk world have a problem with splices despite – no, because – there is actual human in this organism. The reader will not grapple with the being-ness of the Urb despite – no, because – the Urb is able to perfectly duplicate/replicate/masticate (?) an intelligence and a body that is human. There is a recognizable pattern that emerges from these situations: the familiar exists within an unfamiliar form, then the human denies this familiarity and condemns the package that it arrives in either as sub-sentient, as with the spliced, or as enemy – the Urb.

So the tendency to dismiss the duplicated based on the mere premise of it being “duplicated” is tautological and therefore invalid. Meat is meat, whether it was functional muscle for an animal once, or engineered and reconstructed to be exactly the same (petri meat, anyone?). The Urb inhabits sentient space – the place where humans can react to it as a tangible force, mind and body – by means of creating its own macrocosm, a strangely carnivorous process that excretes a duplicate of what it ingests, all the information simultaneously intact and assimilated into the greater rhizome of the “panplasmodaemonium” with all the organisms and objects as its independently moving but ultimately networked visible manifestions.
It is successful in its aim to assimilate the entirety of the planet, and in the complicated process of understanding “everything” that it is, the Urb seeks to surpass sentience, as it finally attains absolute agency. But this is another appearance of the familiar, the striving for self-knowledge. It all fits into the uncanny model of human, questing to conquer all the outside as it does to know the inside.

In the acceptance of the Urb as a being that possesses the same qualities that humans and splices base their rights to exist and reproduce as they see fit upon, the Urb develops from an annihilating enemy to yet another site of difference that is more complex than good or evil. It makes the possession of faculty and cognition that much more complicated, interesting and worthwhile for the human. The parallax of intelligence formed by insight from a non-human can only help the understanding of its existence within a human.

By Marshall Payne

Paul Di Filippo is a protean writer, able to blend disparate fictional elements in his own unique, wildly inventive way. As Cory Doctorow refers to him in the introduction to Paul’s most recent collection, Harsh Oases, “He’s like baking soda in the genre’s fridge, soaking up all its flavors, mixing them together.” Paul’s fiction has appeared in SCI FICTION, F&SF, Cosmos, and many anthologies such as The New Weird and Salon Fantastique, to name just a few. He is the author of ten novels and 13 short story collections, as well as being a regular reviewer for almost all the major print magazines in the field, including Asimov’s, F&SF, Science Fiction Eye, The New York Review of Science Fiction, Interzone, and Nova Express. He lives in Providence, Rhode Island, with his partner, Deborah Newton, a calico cat named Penny Century, and a chocolate-colored cocker spaniel named—according to the author, in a highly unimaginative fashion—Brownie. I am pleased that Paul was able to answer a few of my questions for The Fix.

You’ve been a full-time writer for the past 15 years. What is your writing day like?

My days, like those of most writers, I suspect, attain a startling uniformity, averaged out over time. I arise between 6:30 and 7:00 AM. After chores and breakfast and the indulgence of some newspaper reading (still via old-school print medium; someone has to pay for your free Internet browsing!), I’m at work between 9:30 and 10:00.

Online work—browsing news sites, researching topics, blogging, and answering email—takes up from one to two hours. Then comes some actual creative stuff.

I try to work on only a single project at a time. If a review assignment is on the docket, I might have to devote some time to reading the text for discussion, although a lot of the reading gets done at night. But otherwise I dive into the writing and finish by about 4:00 PM. Then I have to have a walk of an hour or two, to decompress and get some beneficial exercise and do chores.

It’s all rather like the lives of the math monks from Stephenson’s Anathem.

I used to follow the Bradburyian dictum of striving for 1000 words a day in my youth. Now I’m happy with anything upwards of 500. That still allows for 180,000 words a year. Probably more verbiage than any mortal should be allowed to produce. Although just a couple of years ago, I completed my Creature from the Black Lagoon novel—80,000 words—in 70 days.

Can you tell us about your first couple of sales and how your career developed from there?

My actual first sale, while I was still in college, was something of a fluke, to UnEarth magazine in 1977, the same venue that hosted the first stories of Rucker, Gibson, Blaylock, and others. It was a parody of Barry Malzberg’s work. I’m happy to report that after we became pals, Barry was kind enough not to hold this youthful offense against me.

Then I abandoned attempts to write for five years, until 1982, when I decided to push on seriously or perish trying. After nearly three years of constant rejection, I sold two pieces almost simultaneously: one to Ed Ferman at F&SF and one to Ted Klein at Twilight Zone Magazine. Those sales gave me the confidence and courage to soldier on, although rejections still outnumbered sales by a large margin for a long time thereafter.

This meant a succession of days jobs, until about 1993 or so. By then, I had learned how to cobble together any number of small sales to make a bare living. Getting my first book out in 1995 was another milestone and source of income, however small.

During all this, the fiscal and emotional and critical support of mate Deborah Newton made everything possible.

Nowadays, I’m pretty much guaranteed to place any short fiction I write, which makes me feel as if I’ve actually gotten a little better at this odd craft. Or maybe editorial standards have lowered!

For those unfamiliar with the term you coined, “ribofunk,” tell us about it and your fiction based on it.

During the waning days of cyberpunk, I half-jokingly tried to predict the next big movement in SF. I took the prefix “ribo” from the cellular component ribosomes and the musical genre of “funk” and mashed them together, positing hot, passionate, sweaty fiction about speculative biology. I xeroxed a broadside touting this alleged genre and circulated it by mail, and it also appeared in a couple of fanzines.

Having done so, I began to believe my own humorous propaganda, seeing actual story potential therein, and begin to write stories that tried to live up to my prescription. Futuristic stories where the biological sciences are paramount, where human form is mutable, and human-animal hybrids form an underclass.

The movement as such never really materialized, but plenty of writers have seen similar potential in the themes and topics of ribofunk, even if by reinventing my particular wheel. I’d mention Peter Watts, Linda Nagata, and Mark Budz among others.

The titular story of your collection, Harsh Oases, is one of my favorites. In “Harsh Oases,” Thomas Equinas, a part horse “mosaic” or “splice,” is entrusted with the creature known as Swee’pee, who will contain all the genetic material of the mosaics that some humans want to eradicate. This is a wildly inventive story. Where did the inspiration for this piece come from?

After the muted success of Ribofunk the story collection, I always wanted to do a ribofunk novel, and so had been accumulating notes towards something vaguely known to myself alone as Harsh Oases. It was to be organized around a succession of strange terrestrial environments made possible by bioengineering. It occurred to me that one way of plausibly visiting all these environments was by having the protagonist being chased from one to another. But why? After I answered that question, the story fell into focus.

But I kept putting off the writing until I was asked to contribute an original work of fiction for my keynote speech at the Monstruous Bodies Symposium at Georgia Tech. At that point, I said, “Let’s be generous and work up all these ideas into novella form.” This type of ultra-concentrated, jam-packed idea story had always impressed me when Bruce Sterling or Rudy Rucker pulled it off, and I wanted a go at the mode. It does require more focus and invention than single-idea stories, though.

But having done a credible job, I think, of getting the rudiments of this scenario into fictional form, I don’t now feel motivated to expand it to novel-length, so the novel version of Harsh Oases will probably never come to be.

I won’t ask you the hackneyed question, “Where do you get your ideas?” Instead, has there been a bizarre or interesting occurrence in life that led to a story idea that just begged “Write me!”?

I got the idea for my story “Rare Firsts,” about a bookseller who encounters a miraculous library, in a dream, and such incidents are pretty rare for me, so that might qualify. But I’m not certain that the most bizarre things in my stories can be directly traced to real-life events. I use bits and pieces of real-life, like all writers. For instance, I heard of a person, via a friend, who was afraid to make left-hand turns because it meant cutting across scary oncoming traffic, and so that person always had to circle around to her destination, and I used that in Joe’s Liver.

I think you have to have lived Lucius Shepard’s life to have amassed really bizarre incidents that you can then fictionalize.

You seem to move from strength to strength in your fiction, mixing genres and tropes in unique ways, never repeating the same story twice. Do you think this has hurt you commercially, and could you describe how you’ve dealt with finding your own unique path in this field?

I alternate styles and genres simply because I can’t stand repeating myself unto boredom—boredom for me, boredom for the reader. I have to assume that an audience exists that will enjoy my core underlying voice in whatever surface manifestation it currently takes.

But having said that, I must admit that finding a certain limited field and plowing it repeatedly is a much surer and quicker path to success. Other writers such as Richard Lupoff have noted this phenomenon. But we butterfly types flit from one flower to another simply because we have no choice. I wouldn’t known how to write a trilogy if I studied from here till Armageddon!

I like to exhaust an idea in one go. Further exploration is thus foreclosed.

You’ve said that one of the biggest misconceptions about your work is that you only write humor. Yet considering the gonzo, humorous approach you often apply to your fiction, I find this one of your most compelling talents. What are your thoughts on humor in our field?

Humor is my baseline mode in fiction. I started out writing satirical essays for my high school newspaper, after all (almost getting expelled in the process; this was the 1960’s after all) and imprinting on the National Lampoon in its heyday, as well as an omnibus volume of the writings of Paul Krassner. Moreover, humor is my approach to daily life and world events. As someone once said, “Life is too important to be taken seriously.” God, if he or she exists, is the biggest humorist of all.

The SF field has had a fairly large number of great comic writers: Sheckley, Tenn, Rucker, Goulart, Laumer. But we’re in a distinct minority. As Woody Allen famously remarked, we’re perceived to be sitting at “the kids’ table.”

But because we’re in a minority, I think a humorous story stands out when found in the slushpile, and might actually get a better chance at being printed.

How do you perceive the use of irony in our field? Is it often misperceived by readers in your work or in the work of other authors?

Irony is dangerous and slippery. People with no radar for it misapprehend the writer’s motives and desired effects, frequently leading to a lynch-mob mentality. But then again, such folks are probably immune to any form of communication other than a two-by-four upside the head.

I think we must distinguish between “pure” irony, which always has a component of rueful empathy, and cruel snarky irony. I try to stick to the former.

You’ve been known to use pop culture media and show business tropes—50s TV and old movies, etc.—in your fiction for speculative extrapolation. What is it about these tropes that appeals to you?

As a boomer, I was raised during the explosive expansion of mass media into all niches of life. The sheer volume of music, TV, films, advertising, comics, etc., that poured into my life—and the lives of my generational peers—and which thrilled me means that when I’m casting about for a touchstone or narrative format, I often come upon pop culture items first.

The good part of this is that you can make an instant, shorthand connection with your audience—if they possess the same reference points. The bad part is that you can lose your audience if they don’t. And also, such shorthand allusions can make a writer lazy in developing his or her own descriptive or inventive powers. You rely too much on a consensual shared image created by someone else.

If you were stranded on a desert isle and only had a few books by one author as your literary diet, who would that be?

I would certainly have to select the complete oeuvre of Thomas Pynchon. He encapsulates good writing, a keen wit, and a probing dissection of history, character, and insanity in the twentieth century.

Name a few writers who have influenced you more than others as regard to craft and technique? How were you influenced?

Looking at my shelves, I see vast quantities of all the great SF writers of the twentieth century: Brian Aldiss, Michael Moorcock, Robert Heinlein, Poul Anderson, Andre Norton, Clifford Simak, A. E. van Vogt, Philip K. Dick, Samuel Delany, J. G. Ballard—dozens of others. I ingested their work at a rapid pace as a teen, internalizing story structures, styles, themes, tropes in a sponge-like fashion. I just knew from the start that I wanted to emulate these great writers, reproducing for my as-yet-unknown readers the same frissons the masters gave to me. Hopefully, I’ve distilled all their nectar into my own brand of honey.

Once in college, I glommed onto such luminaries as Thomas Wolfe, William Faulkner, J. P. Donleavy, Henry Thoreau, Charles Dickens, and Vladimir Nabokov, bringing their currents into my ocean of story. It’s hard now for me to discern individual motes from each writer. But I can only attest to the subconscious influence and psychic debt they have all left in me. It’s hard to imagine being a writer in a vacuum, 100% self-taught and self-created. I think that’s an impossibility, in fact.

How do you think short SF/F has changed over the last 25 years? For the better? For the worse?

As genre fiction has gained greater respect and technical chops, and begun to blend with the mainstream, it’s come to resemble the mainstream more. Less van Vogt and more Kelly Link. Also, the shapes of stories are less pruned and diagrammatic, more nebulous and shaggy. As critic John Clute told me, when I mentioned that the stories in Harry Harrison’s anniversary collection, 50 in 50, were ineluctably of another era: “The world is not narrated that way any more.”

SF’s pulp genes are becoming recessive, in both theme, content, form, and style. I guess we’re all adults now.

Tell us about Weird Universe.

Weird Universe is a new blog formed by me, Chuck Shepherd of News of the Weird fame, and Alex Boese, proprietor of the Museum of Hoaxes. Basically, we just strive to amuse and enlighten by presenting a daily mix of oddball news and cultural arcana. People seem to like us—assuming they’re as warped as we are!

Do you have any advice for younger writers trying to break into the field? Not only the business aspect, but as to learning craft and technique as well.

1) Read Bradbury’s Zen and the Art of Writing.
2) Find and follow Heinlein’s five simple rules for the professional writer.
3) Read Jack Kerouac’s “Essentials of Spontaneous Prose.”
3) Be tough and compassionate, on yourself and others.
4) Don’t give up too soon.
5) Have fun.

What are you working on now?

I need to begin my long-delayed sequel to A Year in the Linear City, to be titled A Princess of the Linear Jungle. I think there’s enough idea-space left in this universe after the first book to merit one of my rare sequels, but I’ve still been hesitating because newer ideas beckon more alluringly. Charles Stross just blogged about how the book after the one you’re working on always is more appealing than the current project, and I think that’s true.

Then I need to pick up an as-yet fragmentary novel to be titled Up Around the Bend, a post-apocalyptic headtrip.

After that, all is grey churning fog of potentiality!

What’s are your plans for the future? Aspirations? Goals?

I’d like to write a book that would do honor to all my influences, and to the genre, and which would illuminate this inexplicable condition we call life, and which would make readers ecstatically happy and terminally sad, and which would make me rich!

by Peggy Kolm for Biology In Science Fiction

“Ribofunk is speculative fiction which acknowledges, is informed by and illustrates the tenet that the next revolution–the only one that really matters–will be in the field of biology. To paraphrase Pope, ribofunk holds that: “The proper study of mankind is life.” Forget physics and chemistry; they are only tools to probe living matter. Computers? Merely simulators and modelers for life. The cell is King!”
~ Ribofunk: The Manifesto, by Paul Di Filippo (1996)

In the mid- and late 1980s the hot new science fiction subgenre was “cyberpunk“. The stories were usually set in a gritty near-future Earth, where massive international corporations are more powerful that individual governments. The stories themselves heavily featured hackers and crackers and artificial intelligences, hence the “cyber” part of the name.

With the advent of the Human Genome Project and greater focus on biotechnology in the media in the 1990s, there was a natural evolution to stories where it was DNA that was hacked, rather than computer networks. The Such stories have been dubbed by some “biopunk” or the catchier “ribofunk”, a term invented by Paul Di Filippo.

In a recent interview with Marshall Payne at The Fix, Paul Di Filippo talked about how he coined the term:

“During the waning days of cyberpunk, I half-jokingly tried to predict the next big movement in SF. I took the prefix “ribo” from the cellular component ribosomes1.”

I’m personally fond of the term, even though it was originally coined as a parody of the term cyberpunk. I think the greater rhythmic complexity of funk music helps capture the idea that biological systems are more complex and unpredictable than computers. And ribosomes are organelles found in all forms of life that help translate the gene sequences expressed in a cell into proteins (click the link for a cool video). As such, ribosomes play an important in translating changes in the genome made by human genetic engineers into detectable changes in the organism. I think that’s fitting.

And I can’t argue with Filippo’s Ribofunk Manifesto: “the next revolution–the only one that really matters–will be in the field of biology.”

Of course ribofunk just sounds catchy, which is important too.

When Di Filippo’s Ribofunk collection of stories was published in 1996, he talked to Jeffrey Fisher at Wired about the impact of biotechnology on evolution and society. Instead of the conventionally beautiful, hyperintelligent, and uniformly bland engineered humans of the future that some people have posited, he imagined a much more interesting population:

“I think humanity is not wise enough to know what genotype or somatype is going to be the most successful or the most fit – simply because we’re not fully in control of our environment. You could engineer a human to survive the greenhouse effect because you think that’s what’s going to happen, and then all of a sudden the glaciers are creeping down on you. So what we should be encouraging is a kind of chaotic, wildly creative assortment of genotypes and somatypes. And I think that’s going to happen naturally. I don’t think there’ll ever be any impetus toward monoculture; we’ll see diversity become more rampant.”

So what novels might be included in the biopunk/ribofunk cannon? Matt Staggs at Enter the Octopus has a list, as does the Genome Alberta blog. Different people have different takes on what should be included, but the elements that I’d include:

  • not-too-distant future setting
  • extensive use of genetic engineering, particularly on humans
  • a dystopian feel


That’s a pretty broad definition, I know. Some of the books I’d include in the subgenre:

  • Ribofunk by Paul Di Fillipo (of course)
  • Holy Fire by Bruce Sterling (cyberpunk with biotech elements)
  • The Scab’s Progress in Babylon Sisters and Other Posthumans by Paul Di Fillipo and Bruce Sterling
  • White Devils by Paul Mc Auley (which features biopunks)
  • Clade by Mark Budz (Kevin Anderson in the New York Times review of this novel supposedly coined the term “biopunk”)
  • Winterlong: A Novel by Elizabeth Hand
  • Oryx and Crake by Margaret Atwood
  • possibly Richard K. Morgan’s Thirteen


Human genetic engineering seems to be a pretty standard element in recent works set in near future dystopias, so I’m not sure where the line should be drawn – or even if it should. Arguing about such SF subgenre designations is all part of the fun.

1. There are some sources that say the “ribo” is from ribonucleic acid (RNA), but in every interview with Di Fillipo I’ve read, going back to 1996 he’s said the source was “ribosome”. I fixed the entry in Wikipedia, and we’ll see if it stays.